Public 'Burka Ban' Comes into Force in Netherlands
Dutch government follows lead from France, Germany, Belgium, Austria and Denmark
A "burka ban" has come into force in the Netherlands this week, making it illegal to wear full-face coverings in public places such as in and around schools, hospitals, and on public transport.
The country is following the likes of France, Germany, Belgium, Austria and Denmark in introducing the new law.
Clothing that covers the face, which includes the niqab and burka worn by oppressed Muslim women, are now also banned in government buildings.
Left-wing groups are voicing opposition to the law, with an Islamic political party in Rotterdam saying it will pay the €150 ($165) fine for anybody caught violating the ban by Dutch authorities.
The new rules came into effect on Thursday, but there are no immediate reports of anyone receiving a fine.
Despite opposition, the new law - formally called the "partial ban on face-covering clothing" - was passed and will likely only affect a small minority of women in the Netherlands who wear a burka or niqab.
According to Sky News, estimates put the number at a few hundred in the nation of 17 million people.
Professor Tom Zwart of the University of Utrecht, who studies the intersection of law, culture, and religion, said that the ban is largely symbolic, but for women who wear a niqab "the ban is still on the books, and if they come across a strict bus driver or tram conductor, they might still be in trouble."
He added: "This undoubtedly has a chilling effect on their ability to take part in public life."
Nationalist politician Geert Wilders, whose calls for a total burka ban ignited more than a decade of debate before parliament approved the law last year, welcomed the introduction of the limited ban as "a historic day."
He called for it to be expanded to include Islamic headscarves.
Mr. Wilders said: "I believe we should now try to take it to the next step.
"The next step to make it sure that the headscarf could be banned in the Netherlands as well."
The Dutch government has insisted that its partial ban doesn't target any religion and that people are free to dress how they want.
However, a government site explaining the new ban says "this freedom is limited at locations where communication is vital for good quality service or for security in society."
Mr. Wilders dismissed the explanation as political correctness.
Interior Minister Kajsa Ollongren, who wasn't available for comment on Thursday, said earlier this year that the government will evaluate the new law after three years.
Usually, such evaluations follow five years after a new law is implemented.
It remains to be seen how strenuously the rules will be enforced in the Netherlands.
The national federation of academic hospitals said in a statement that enforcement is up to police and prosecutors.
It added that it was "not aware of any cases in which wearing face-covering clothing or a possible ban has led to problems" in healthcare.
The head of the umbrella organization of public transport companies also has said that bus drivers and train conductors don't have the power to enforce it and would have to leave it up to police.
The Dutch ban came into force eight years after France became the first European nation to ban the public use of veils, both face-covering niqabs and full-body burkas.
A 2004 law also bans Muslim hijab headscarves and other prominent religious symbols from being worn in state schools but doesn't apply in universities.
France's tough law fell foul of the UN Human Rights Committee, which last year ruled that the country violated the human rights of two women by fining them for wearing the niqab.